Ectopic Pregnancy: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Ectopic Pregnancy: An Ectopic pregnancy develops when the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus. It is also known as cervical or abdominal pregnancy. The fallopian tube is the most common site. It rarely occurs in the abdomen, in the ovary, or uterus. It can be very dangerous as the large artery runs on the outside of the fallopian tube. When the artery ruptures, it bleeds severely. It can be diagnosed in the first or second month of pregnancy.

Ectopic pregnancy

Causes of ectopic pregnancy:

It can be caused by the failure of the zygote in the fallopian tube and after transmitted into the uterus. Sometimes physical blockage in the fallopian tube may be developed during abdominal pregnancy. The fallopian tube is a hollow pipe and has little hairs on the cilia and they move to attract the fertilized eggs toward the womb.

However, when the tube or cilia are damaged, ectopic is likely to occur. It is commonly found in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Sometimes scar tissue in fallopian tubes and tubal surgery causing cilia damage and increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy.

Other causes of ectopic pregnancy are the use of intrauterine devices, progesterone, and the morning-after pill. Sometimes contraceptives or hormonal methods may increase the risk of this type of pregnancy. Patients who are going through infertility treatments have a high risk of ectopic pregnancies. Vaginal douching and smoking are developing ectopic pregnancies.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy:

  • Severe pelvic pain and abdominal pain. Even it can have the symptoms of appendicitis and gastrointestinal disorder, so it becomes difficult to diagnose.
  • Patients may feel cramps on either side of the pelvis.
  • There can be spotting or regular menstrual periods or vaginal bleeding.
  • Patients may feel nausea, tenderness in the breast, or pain in the low back.
  • Abnormal heartbeat, it can be up to 100 beats per minute.


  • An abnormal rise in blood HCG levels can be prescribed by health care providers.
  • The radiologist can make the diagnose by the ultrasound examination.
  • Laparoscopy may help to visually confirm this type of pregnancy.
  • Urine pregnancy tests will also effective to detect an ectopic pregnancy.
  • Sometimes culdocentesis test may be used to diagnose the disease.

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy:

Treatment is very necessary to save the life of the patient. Earlier, methotrexate has prescribed by the doctor. The types of treatment depend on the causes and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy. Surgical laparotomy is very effective to control bleeding. It can be repaired the damaged tissue and remove the conception.

Sometimes it is necessary, remove the affected fallopian tube. Mini-laparotomy is the main surgical treatment, will be preferred by health care providers in non-emergency cases. Surgical intervention is very necessary to reduce the discomfort. Medical treatment and medications are also suggested by the doctor.


  • You should take antibiotics prescribed by the doctor.
  • You should avoid sexual contact.
  • You should wear latex condoms during sexual activities.
  • Avoid risk factors such as sexually transmitted diseases and multiple partners.
  • If you are experiencing signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy, go to your health care provider as soon as possible.

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